Rivera ZH, Oosterink E, Rietveld L, Schoutsen F, Stolker L.
Anal Chim Acta. 2011 Aug 26;700(1-2):114-25.
The influence of natural organic matter on the screening of pharmaceuticals in water was determined by using high resolution liquid chromatography (HRLC) combined with full scan mass spectrometry (MS) techniques like time of flight (ToF) or Orbitrap MS. Water samples containing different amount of natural organic matter (NOM) and residues of a set of 11 pharmaceuticals were analyzed by using Exactive Orbitrap™ LC-MS. The samples were screened for residues of pharmaceuticals belonging to different classes like benzimidazoles, macrolides, penicillins, quinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, tranquillizers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anti-epileptics and lipid regulators. The method characteristics were established over a concentration range of 0.1-500 μg L(-1). The 11 pharmaceuticals were added to two effluent and two influent water samples. The NOM concentration within the samples ranged from 2 to 8 mg L(-1) of dissolved organic carbon. The HRLC-Exactive Orbitrap™ LC-MS system was set at a resolution of 50,000 (FWHM) and this selection was found sufficient for the detection of the list of pharmaceuticals. With this resolution setting, accurate mass measurements with errors below 2 ppm were found, despite of the NOM concentration of the different types of water samples. The linearities were acceptable with correlation coefficients greater than 0.95 for 30 of the 51 measured linearities. The limit of detection varies between 0.1 μg L(-1)and 100 μg L(-1). It was demonstrated that sensitivity could be affected by matrix constituents in both directions of signal reduction or enhancement. Finally it was concluded that with direct shoot method used (no sample pretreatment) all compounds, were detected but LODs depend on matrix-analyte-concentration combination. No direct relation was observed between NOM concentration and method characteristics. For accurate quantification the use of internal standards and/or sample clean-up is necessary. The direct shoot method is only applicable for qualitative screening purposes. The use of full scan MS makes it possible to search for unknown contaminants. With the use of adequate software and a database containing more than 50,000 entries a tool is available to search for unknowns.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003267011000638
Department of Sanitary Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.