Olsen JV, Macek B, Lange O, Makarov A, Horning S, Mann M. Nat Methods. 2007 Sep;4(9):709-12. Peptide sequencing is the basis of mass spectrometry–driven proteomics. Here we show that in the linear ion trap–orbitrap mass spectrometer (LTQ Orbitrap) peptide ions can be efficiently fragmented by high-accuracy and full-mass-range tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) via higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD). Immonium ions generated via HCD pinpoint modifications such as phosphotyrosine with very high confidence. Additionally we show that an added octopole collision cell facilitates de novo sequencing.