on 10-03-201404:31 AM - edited on 10-15-202107:22 AM by Closed Account
Ngo S, Li X, O'Neill R, Bhoothpur C, Gluckman P, Sheppard A. Diabetes. 2014 Jul;63(7):2273-83. doi: 10.2337/db13-1640. Epub 2014 Feb 26. Maternal deficiencies in micronutrients affecting one-carbon metabolism before and during pregnancy can influence metabolic status and the degree of insulin resistance and obesity of the progeny in adulthood. Notably, maternal and progeny plasma S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) levels are both elevated after vitamin deficiency in pregnancy. Therefore, we investigated whether this key one-carbon cycle intermediate directly affects adipocyte differentiation and function. We found that expansion and differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in the presence of SAH impaired both basal and induced glucose uptake as well as lipolysis compared with untreated controls. SAH did not alter preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ 2 (Pparγ2) but significantly reduced expression of CAAT enhancer-binding protein-α (Cebpα), Cebpβ, and retinoid x receptor-α (Rxrα) compared with untreated adipocytes. SAH increased Rxrα methylation on a CpG unit (chr2:27,521,057+, chr2:27,521,049+) and CpG residue (chr2:27,521,080+), but not Cebpβ methylation, relative to untreated adipocytes. Trimethylated histone H3-Lys27 occupancy was significantly increased on Cebpα and Rxrα promoters in SAH-treated adipocytes, consistent with the reduction in gene expression. In conclusion, SAH did not affect adipogenesis per se but altered adipocyte functionality through epigenetic mechanisms, such that they exhibited altered glucose disposal and lipolysis. Our findings implicate micronutrient imbalance in subsequent modulation of adipocyte function.